). In Bulgaria, Starkaleff (68) reported that 90 percent of the aborted men had two or fewer living children.
Several studies of abortion in less developed countries describe a similar tern, despite the fact that both actual and desired family size is typically tier in these countries.* The Chilean study by Armijo and Monreal (22) ,nd that 77 percent of the provoked abortions in Santiago were concen-:ed among women who had three or fewer living children. From a study of trtion in three Colombian communities (Candelaria, Popayan, and nizales, where 86, 90, and 83 percent respectively of the total women ;rviewed desired a family size of four 01 less), Mendoza-Hoyos (59) con-ded that after the ideal number of children is reached, the abortion rate ws a sharp increase. The data are summarized in Table 7.
Percentage Distribution of Induced Abortions According to Number of Pregnancies and Ideal Family Size
1-3 Pregnancies 4 or more Pregnancies
Ideal Family Size Ideal Family Size
nmunity 1-4 5-6 7+ Others 1-4 5-6 7+ Others Total
idelaria >aydn lizalcs 4.3 21 5.4 0 0 2.2 0 0 2.2 0 1.8 0 73.9 72 87 21.8 0 3.2 0 3.4 0 0 1.8 0 100 100 100
Source: (59, Table 9, p. 9).
Similar observations were made in South Korea where Hong (31) reported t 90 percent of the rural women in the sample of 2,084 gave family nning as the reason for induced abortion. Child spacing was given as a son by 6 percent, and 3 percent gave other reasons. In the survey of India viously cited, Agarwala (34) reported abortion rates of 85 per l,000preg-icies during the period when contraceptives were not in use and 175 per 00 pregnancies during the subsequent period when contraception was ng practiced. Abortion rates rose sharply after clinic attendance, which ;nsified motivation to limit family size. During the period of follow-up, 5 pregnancies occurred among 3,522 women using prescribed contracep-
"Surveys of several local areas in Latin America reveal marked disparities between the lal average number of children, which ranged from 4.1 to 5.4 per woman, and the rage number of desired children, which ranged from 2.8 to 5.6. The average differ-e between actual and desired family size for the eight areas investigated was 1.2;cent of the sample explained that the ideal family size had been reached; only 12.7 percent gave illness as the reasononomic, and demographic changes gains momentum. In societies in which modernization factors have intensified desires to limit family size, while the availability and acceptance of effective contraceptive methods are limited, there are numerous implications for induced abortion.